chapter 4 models and services

The human services profession is broad and allows practitioners to move among the micro, mezzo, and macro levels. Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of a client. When working with clients, combining research and clinical expertise can be of benefit. In the fields of human development and family sciences, sociology, and psychology there is ongoing research being conducted to assess various assessment and treatment modalities.

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For example, successful service brand development is obtained through a high degree of service orientation, customer involvement, an involvement model of service leadership and a motivated, committed and empowered workforce,… This logical model of the business provides the basis for creating and managing service interfaces. Each entity in the logical model is either a stateful entity or a stateless entity. The manager classes are stateless entities, and the other classes are stateful entities. For example, the account entity contains attributes that contain the state of a single account; namely, account number and amount. The savings account, checking account, customer, and address entities also maintain state and are also stateful entities.

4.2 Theories and Research

Just as each team may define its services model with different categories, each project’s developers will also pick the set of service waypoints on those categories that best address the project they are working on. Platform as a Service is halfway between Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS). Cultural responsiveness includes the acknowledgement of the effects of dominant culture on those who are members of marginalized groups. For example, the feminist approach to human services and social work is based on the belief that it is not the female psyche that is a problem but that societal patriarchal structures are oppressive to women (Enge, 2013). Another example is the LGBTQ+ approach which also emphasizes affirming the identities and experiences of the LGBTQ+ individual (Four Basic Guidelines for Practicing LGBTQ-Affirming Social Work, n.d.).

4.6 Evidence-Based Practice

The strengths-based approach, also known as the strengths perspective, emphasizes that every person, group, family, and community has strengths; and every community or environment is full of resources (Johnson & Yanca, 2010). Often attributed to Bertha Reynolds, a mid-twentieth century social worker, and Dennis Saleeby a late twentieth century scholar, the approach actually has foundation in the work of Black scholars and social workers. E. B. Du Bois wrote about the strength of Blacks to adapt and survive in hostile conditions. Research bias occurs when the research process is skewed by the behaviors or beliefs of the researcher and/or the participants. Bias is an important issue to pay attention to, for both the researcher and those who rely on research findings to make critical decisions in human services programs. Awareness of bias is an essential step in addressing institutional systems of oppression that affect families.

  1. An advantage of the generalist approach is the awareness of theories, foundational concepts, and practices of multiple fields and practitioners that promote well-being.
  2. While we may know enough to respond to external cues, such as language and ways of dress, it is important to realize that the client may have internal cultural values not visible right away.
  3. Family reports history of substance abuse issues as well as struggles with mental health issues, which may indicate possible genetic connections to be explored.

4.11.2 Mezzo (Meso) Level

Because the manager classes do not represent a single entity but manage multiple entities, the interfaces for the manager classes require that a unique key be passed in. The unique key identifies the entity for which the action is to be performed. For instance, the ApplyInterest method of SavingsAccountManager requires the rate as well as the account number to identify the entity for executing ApplyInterest behavior. The ApplyInterest method on the SavingsAccount entity does not need a unique key, because it represents a single savings account instance.

chapter 4 models and services

PPPoE intermediate agent—the ability of the ONT UNI to insert secure elements into the PPPoE session setup exchange. Business objects are declared as Python classes extendingModel, which integrates them into the automatedpersistence system. Many adolescents have reported increases in depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. It’s possible that Marlon has been affected and that is related to his use of marijuana.

Cultural responsiveness includes understanding the social construction of difference, which is described below, intersectionality, and attending to what others tell us about their experiences, cultural humility. Marlon is an adolescent which means his body continues to experience hormonal and physical changes. Within the family, a key element of the microsystem, he is also reported to present with anger, fighting with his siblings and struggling with strained relationships. Theories can be developed using induction, a process in which the theorist observes and notes patterns in a variety of single cases and then develops (“induces”) ideas based on these examples.

The social component includes aspects related to peer and family relationships, social supports, cultural traditions, education, employment/job security, socioeconomic status, and societal messages. The psychological component includes aspects related to mental health, self-esteem, attitudes/beliefs, temperament, coping skills, emotions, learning, memory, perceptions, and personality. The bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach assesses levels of functioning within biological, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions (and how they are connected) to help understand human behavior. This approach includes much of the same information you will find in the Micro level but we are wanting to take a deeper look at how the individual is functioning in each dimension as well as how they can impact one another. The ecological systems theory, created in the late 1970s by Urie Bronfenbrenner, draws on both systems theory and an ecological approach called person-in-environment. Person-in-environment is the idea that people are influenced by their environments.

Philippe Pinel combined his knowledge with Pussin’s principles and developed the moral method. The moral method says that mental illness is an imbalance that the patient has and could be treated with extensive observation and very detailed therapies. This impacted the well-being of mental illness because it benefits the client more rather than punishing them like before. Depending on the infrastructure of the ONT UNI, support for L3 prioritization markings, as well as trusted/untrusted L3 operation may also be available (i.e., DSCP or differentiated services code point marking).

PaaS is the model most used by DevOps teams to collaborate on each aspect of the application development lifecycle. It allows you to build and deploy applications while maintaining flexibility and control over the deployment environment. PaaS platforms typically offer a range of development tools, frameworks, and libraries, making it easy to get started. Chapter 3 discusses how to develop a customer-driven services marketing strategy and how a value proposition should be positioned in a way that creates competitive advantage for the firm. This chapter first links the customer, competitor, and company (commonly referred to as “3 Cs”) analysis to a firm’s positioning strategy.

chapter 4 models and services

We also define the nature of services and how they create value for customers without transfer of ownership. The chapter highlights some distinctive challenges involved in marketing services and introduces the 7 Ps of services marketing. The framework shown in Figure I on the facing page will accompany us throughout as it forms the basis for each of the five parts in this book.

AngularJS simply stores this object reference to a variable which is passed as first argument. Anything which is returned from fnFactory will be bound to serviceInstance . Instead of returning object , we can also return function, values etc, Whatever we will return , will be available to service instance. @joshperry As a newbie, I’ve googled the difference between service and factory for a while. I’d understand service as a service class (e.g. encoder/decoder class), which might have some private properties. When creating a service with Provider, the only properties/methods that will be available in your controller are those properties/methods which are returned from the $get() function.

If a controller is supposed to be lightweight and only concern itself with the view it’s controlling, what happens when you need functionality to be available to your entire application? If a controller should never communicate directly with other controllers, how do they share information? Whereas controllers are constrained to a specific context, AngularJS services exist to provide functionality that’s … Whereas controllers are constrained to a specific context, AngularJS services exist to provide functionality that’s available to the entire application.

When objects have things in common, just like the pages, we call them base attributes or base properties. We know the Mirror card isn’t going to change anytime soon and if it did, we would want the test to fail. Get Mark Richards’s Software Architecture Patterns ebook to better understand how to design components—and how they should interact. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

The way that we’ll do that is by adding the TestCase attributes right here. This enables us to reuse our test methods by using the test case attributes from the NUnit test framework. Interfaces are rules or contracts that must be followed by any class that implements them. In CardDetailsPage, we’ll add a GetBaseCard method to get the base card metrics off of the page and return it as a Card Object. We can put it all together to reap the fruits of our labor by creating a method that returns the base card using elements on the page. And it’ll look just like the Mirror card, but make sure to put in the Ice Spirit values.